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        ,平民皇帝,朱元璋:酷刑株连大杀功臣宿将

          为子孙坐稳朱家江山而血腥屠戮功臣

          洪武十年之前,朱元璋前后一共杀害了三名功臣,他们是:淮安侯华云龙、德庆侯廖永忠、刘伯温。他们两个人的罪名都是违制。

          华云龙是因为“据元相脱脱第宅,僭用故元宫中物”得罪,《明史》上没有说明华云龙的死因,只是含糊的说他“未至京,道卒”,但是,也语焉不详的道出了一点细节--“召(华云龙)还,命何文辉往代。”,何文辉是何许人也呢?只要看一下他的在明史的本传就知道了,这是一个和李文忠等人齐名的军事特务,是朱元璋的义子,长年负责代替朱元璋监临统军诸将的类似于后来的锦衣卫头子似的人物,以他这样的身份被派到北平显然是特别具有深意的。

        acd1a91_副本.jpg

          据谈迁考证,华云龙是被赐死的,死的也还算是体面,因为随后朱元璋让他的儿子华中接替了侯爵,功臣没有除爵,应该是洪武朝的“善终”。

          德庆侯廖永忠是兄弟共同辅佐朱元璋,特别值得一提的是,廖永忠为朱元璋办了一件大事,那就是奉命凿沉小明王韩林儿的坐船,给朱元璋解除了后顾之忧,然而,朱元璋为了掩盖自己的真实意图,居然没有封给廖永忠上赏,当然,理由还是老一套,就是亲近儒生、窥测朕意等。

          曾几何时,廖永忠几乎杀身于鄱阳湖,朱元璋手书:“功超群将,智迈雄师”赐给廖永忠,而后平蜀,以永忠军功最高,呼之为“傅一廖二”(意为傅友德第一、廖永忠第二),洪武八年,永忠因“僭用龙凤诸不法事,赐死”,五年之后,儿子廖权才被允许袭爵,而廖永忠的孙子廖镛兄弟是方孝孺的弟子,后来奉命劝降方孝孺,不果被杀(理由居然是给方孝孺收尸)。

          刘伯温和杨宪都是淮西集团的眼中钉,所以,刘伯温虽以大功,止封伯爵,而且,在洪武初年就致仕还乡了。按照朱元璋和刘伯温的次子刘璟的对话,刘伯温是死在胡惟庸的手中,但是,洪武八年,刘伯温死的时候,胡惟庸正是宠信正隆、如日中天,刘伯温之入京的原因按照明史的说法是胡惟庸离间朱元璋造成的,但是,明史作者同时比较晦涩的指出:“帝虽不罪基(刘伯温),然颇为所动,遂夺基禄。

        acd1a91_副本.jpg

          基惧入谢,乃留京,不敢归。”刘伯温活着的时候就被夺取爵位,处分显然相当严重,刘伯温佐命朱元璋,屡出奇谋,朱元璋当然不能不考虑他的存在的合理性和非合理性的比例。而刘伯温能够受之胡惟庸推荐的医生之药而不疑,自然是医生来的有背景。这点,刘伯温自己有过预见:“我欲为遗表,惟庸在,无益也。惟庸败后,上必思我,有所问,以是密奏之。”

          所以,刘伯温的后人见到朱元璋从来只提胡惟庸的毛病,一语不及朱元璋,联系到后来的徐达、李文忠的死因之蹊跷,得证刘伯温之死也应该不是胡惟庸这一层面人物能够下手解决的了的。


        《路边历史编辑》

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