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        揭开历史谎言:还原真实的程咬金三板斧

        程咬金是小说《隋唐演义》中赫赫有名的人物。众所周知,这个性格直爽、威风凛凛的猛将使用的兵器是一柄斧头,他三斧子定瓦岗的故事被后人津津乐道,“程咬金三板斧”更是成了挂在人们嘴边的俗话,被用来比喻做事起初只要声势大,用招绝,就会效果好。

          然而,演义毕竟不是正史,很多情节都是虚构或夸张的,正史中真实的程咬金半路杀出来时,手里拿的兵器其实根本不是什么板斧,而是十八般兵器中的另一种。

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          人们知道程咬金这个人多是从演义小说中认知的,俗话“程咬金三板斧”也同样出自小说。他成人后贩过私盐,蹲过监狱,卖过柴扒,会友楼义结响马尤俊达,后梦中高人传授了“三板斧”,他醒来演练时,被尤俊达喝破,因程咬金是一个健忘症患者,所以他只记住三招,这就是“程咬金三板斧”来由。

          演义小说中的程咬金,只学会了三板斧,面对一切对手也都是用这三板斧,第一斧:劈脑袋,用板斧从上往下猛砍。第二斧:小鬼剔牙,对方招架时,收斧头,献斧纂,攻击对方的脸。第三斧:掏耳朵,二马错蹬,回身横扫,因为对方前招的铁板桥刚起身,很难躲闪,所以到用第三板斧时,一般就能将对方斩杀。这三斧子一用完,马上收家伙,功夫简洁,回回奏效,屡建奇功。

          程咬金(593-665),历史上确有其人,他是济州东阿人,原名咬金,后更名知节,唐朝大将,封卢国公,凌烟阁二十四功臣之一。生于隋文帝开皇十三年,卒于唐麟德二年二月七日,享年七十二岁。从演义中说他活了一百多岁看,其中就有很多臆造之嫌,他的板斧更是让人不敢相信。真实的程咬金打仗时究竟使用的是什么兵器,只能从新旧《唐书》中寻找答案,这才是最可信的。

          后晋·刘昫《旧唐书》卷七十二程知节列传记载:“程知节,本名咬金,济州东阿人也。少骁勇,善用马槊。”欧阳修、宋祁的《新唐书》卷一〇三程知节列传记载:“善马槊”。至于程咬金是如何使用马槊这种兵器的,史料中没有什么细节,倒是记载了他在战斗中受伤挂彩、“刺槊洞过”、折断其槊、救人危难的过程。不过,《旧唐书》和《新唐书》均对程咬金使用斧子一事,只字未提。新旧《唐书》寥寥数语足以证明,程咬金战场上得心应手的兵器其实是马槊,而不是斧头。

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          那么,马槊到底是古代的一种什么样的兵器呢?汉代刘熙《释名·释兵》称:“矛长丈八尺曰槊,马上所持,言其俏俏便杀也”。汉代的马槊一丈八尺,这就是后来所说的“丈八蛇矛”。南朝梁简文帝《马槊谱序》:“马槊为用,虽非古法,近代相传,稍以成艺。”

          从历史资料看,古代的冷兵器槊是由矛和棒演变而来的,它种类很多,结构复杂,较为笨重,多为大力士所使用。它硬木制成,分槊柄和槊头两部分。槊柄一般长六尺。槊头呈圆锤状,有的头上装有铁钉,有的槊柄尾端装有鐏。其主要技法有劈、盖、截、拦、撩、冲、带、挑等。

          古代小说演义中,为什么非让使用马槊的程咬金使用斧子呢?这与小说作者刻划人物特点的意图和需要分不开。俗话说,人是衣服马是鞍。要突出人物个性,不但要注重内在的气质,还要注意外部的形象。程咬金在小说中是一个性格直爽、粗中有细、好惹事端、占山为王的混世魔王形象,要突出这样的人物特点,必须让他手中的兵器相响应,马槊有点温柔,只有斧子才能衬托出程咬金粗犷豪壮的鲁莽形象。

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          在古代十八般兵器中,槊和斧虽然同属重兵器,但斧子更重更大更具杀伤力,舞动时更有劈山开岭、气吞山河的威武雄姿。回首各种演义小说,其中使用斧头的人物大多是满脸乱须、坦露胸毛、眼睛暴出、粗犷豪放、大块吃肉、大碗喝酒的威风凛凛的杀场猛将,这是留下在中国人脑海中的大众印象。古代演义小说的作者把程咬金手中的蛇矛拿掉换成斧子,这不但能表现他粗暴骁勇的形象,而且也容易被广大民众所接受。

          演义小说的作者为了吸引人们的眼球,把历史人物塑造得面目全非,已不是什么稀罕事儿,程咬金也不例外。他本来是一个世家大族,在小说中却变成了一个逃荒抢劫的穷光蛋,这种翻天覆地的颠覆式改编都能做出来,何况一柄不足挂齿的斧头呢?不过,对这一人物的虚构,着实忽悠了不少人,因为人们记住程咬金的,还是斧头,而不是马槊。由此看,演义小说的发展史,有时也是一部对民间大众的忽悠史。


        《路边历史编辑》

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