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        洪承畴后人 历史上洪承畴是一个怎么样的人

          洪承畴后人,对于洪承畴相信大家还是很了解的,因为洪承畴的存在才使得两个朝代都有所受益,但是也有很多人说洪承畴是一个汉奸,对于这样的说法到底是从何而来的,我们首先来看看洪承畴是否有后人,传言说洪承畴一生都没有娶妻生子,这样的说法到底是否正确呢,一起来看看下面为大家介绍的内容。

        洪承畴

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          洪承畴后人

          没有。洪承畴出身望族后裔,是武荣翁山洪氏第十二代孙,属东轩五房,书香门第。到了他的曾祖父辈,已是家道中落,并不富裕。曾祖父洪以诜,痒生(秀才)。祖父洪有秩,贡生。文章有名气,早年卒于赴考途中。夫人戴氏在有秩死后生下遗腹子洪启熙(字尔朝,号幼迹公),就是洪承畴的父亲。

          戴氏孝事姑婆,抚孤成长,被朝廷表节孝烈女,累赠一品夫人。父洪启熙也中秀才,性格庄重,以至孝名闻乡里。娶妻傅氏,是名门闺秀,教子极严。生子三,长承畴,次承畹,三洪承畯。承畹早逝。承峻是名闻泉郡的书法家。

          而承畴本人,却未娶无子。

          大家为什么议论洪承畴

          2015年11月,洪承畴纪念园高调开园,并邀请了多名北京清史专家前往助兴。而2007年时,洪承畴老家福建也曾挂出过“隆重纪念开清重臣洪承畴诞辰414周年”的横幅,旁边还有对联,上联为“论武略文韬名传汗简”,下联是“数丰功伟绩无愧英雄”。

          纪念一位地方名人,本也不足为奇,尤其是在旅游业越来越重要的当代,变着法要跟或真实或虚构的名人扯上关系更是各地普遍的现象,如光是号称祝英台故乡的全国就有至少五六处。

          但是洪承畴可不是一般的名人。作为出身南方的汉人,他在家中贫寒的情况下受人资助,自学不辍,逐渐成为明朝末年的肱股重臣,但却在被清人俘获后投降,并积极为清朝定鼎中原出谋划策,甚至还入了旗,因此被视为史上最著名的汉奸之一,这种复杂形象也给他带来了极大的争议性。

        洪承畴

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          洪承畴其人

          洪承畴出生于福建泉州府南安县,和很多明朝士大夫不同,他的家庭出身并不显赫,甚至相当贫穷,小时候需要卖豆干贴补家用而被迫辍学。因为有人赏识其才华予以资助,他才得以继续学业。洪承畴于二十三岁时中举出仕,三十五岁时升为粮道参议。

          截至崇祯二年,洪承畴的官场生涯大致平稳,虽有升官但并不快。依照一般规律,他应该是稳稳当当以一个不大不小的官员身份做到告老还乡。但是此时,机会来了。

          明朝末年,一边得应付新兴的清朝威胁,另一边各种农民义军也风起云涌,这让朝廷焦头烂额。对于怎么对付农民军,朝廷向来有主张安抚和主张剿灭的,而洪承畴则是坚决的主剿派。

          洪承畴在剿匪的坚决和果断程度上几乎无人能及。崇祯二年后,他一直辗转陕西、山西、河南等地,对农民起义军采取了彻底歼灭措施,甚至多有杀降行为,效果卓著。崇祯九年,俘杀高迎祥、大败李自成之后,洪承畴被崇祯帝授兵部尚书兼右副都御史总督蓟辽军务,达到他在明朝官场的高峰。

          月满则亏,在洪承畴爬上人生巅峰的同时,他也即将面临人生的一次重大改变。

          崇祯十四年,宁锦被围,洪承畴率领十三万大军解围。开始战局顺利,但是崇祯皇帝再次发挥了糊涂本性,听信了兵部尚书陈新甲的意见,令洪承畴“刻期出兵”,结果明军兵败松山,洪承畴本人被俘。

          根据《清史稿》和早期记录,被俘后的洪承畴一开始摆出一副要守节的样子,宁可死也不能降清,对前来劝降的范文程也大肆谩骂。但是在屡次劝降下,特别是受到皇太极亲自为其解衣、嘘寒问暖后,洪承畴叩头剃发,投降清朝。

        洪承畴

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          相传范文程劝降时,看到洪承畴虽然言语中做好了赴死的准备,但却掸去落到衣服上的灰尘,因此向皇太极汇报——如此爱惜自己的人,定然心里是不想死的,洪承畴是可以劝降的。更有说法是,皇太极让自己的宠妃、顺治帝的母亲、后来的孝庄太后博尔济吉特氏色诱洪承畴使其变节。

          两种说法都增加了洪承畴降清的戏剧性,但仔细推敲,均有漏洞——日本战国时期名臣石田三成在临被处死前口渴,但是以吃柿子生痰,对身体不好拒绝了敌方送来的柿子。敌方笑他人之将死还在乎对身体不好,他以做大事的人不到最后一刻不会放弃回应。因此掸灰之举被视为变节前兆倒也未必一定准确。至于皇太极为了劝降洪承畴下那么大的血本,就更不可信了。

          无论如何,洪承畴还是投降了。在经过一段时间的思想斗争和角色转换后,洪承畴彻底变成了清廷入主中原的领路人,并在清朝入关后一改之前对农民起义杀无赦的态度,承担了招抚的重任,被清廷委任为“招抚南方总督军务大学士”,先后招降了张晋彦、高进忠、田见秀、郑芝龙等人。由于功勋卓著,清廷多次对其表彰,甚至在顺治九年,发生了谏阻顺治帝迎达赖活佛事件后,顺治帝非但没有怪罪他,反而遵从了他的劝谏并予以表扬。

          洪承畴的好运气一直延续到了顺治十六年。清军平定云南后,洪承畴请求发钱赈济灾民,暂缓向逃亡缅甸的南明余部进军,吴三桂则积极要求出兵剿灭南明。该年八月,洪承畴因年老体衰、目疾严重请求返回北京。回京后却遭到冷遇,仕途生涯基本结束。

          南明永历帝逃亡缅甸,并一度试图通过皈依天主教获得罗马教廷的帮助。

          褒贬不一的贰臣

          虽然在清廷如鱼得水,但是洪承畴的投降行为在明朝遗臣眼中,则是大节有亏、大逆不道的行为。洪承畴的投降对明朝臣子的打击相当巨大,其投降后虽然成功劝降了很多明臣,但也遭到很多冷遇。而这些明朝忠臣对洪承畴劝降的应对之策相当一致。

          孙兆奎和洪承畴是旧相识,被俘后洪承畴问他知不知道史可法是否已经死了。孙回答:“经略(即洪承畴)从北来,审知故松山殉难督师洪公果死邪,抑未死邪?”这种明知故问让洪承畴大为尴尬,呼喝手下将孙兆奎推出斩首。

          金声被擒后,洪承畴向其表明身份,金声却说:洪承畴受先帝厚恩,已经战死阵亡,先帝恸哭。身为大明的忠臣,你是什么人竟敢冒充洪承畴?

          夏完淳被俘时年仅十七,声称愿意以洪承畴忠君爱国、战死沙场为榜样赴死。旁边的兵士以为夏完淳不认识审讯官就是洪承畴而提醒他,夏完淳则以洪承畴英勇战死天下皆知,这种逆徒小人怎敢伪托应对。

          黄道周在婺源被清军俘获后押解至江宁,洪承畴又担任起劝降的工作,但遭黄道周痛骂:“洪承畴久已殉国,何来无耻小人敢于冒充先烈。”

          由此可见,这种把降清前的洪承畴当作已死之人,降清后的看作是截然不同的竖子小人在当时的明朝旧臣圈里具有相当的普遍性。

          甚至连洪承畴家人也对他降清不满,相传洪承畴在北京当了大官后,曾接老母进京,但是其母痛打洪承畴,骂道:“汝迎我来,欲以我为旗下老婢耶?吾打汝死,为天下除害!”遂自行南返。后来洪承畴又在泉州修建了豪华的宅邸给母亲居住,但是母亲穿着出嫁时明朝的衣服不肯走,甚至后来还和洪承畴的弟弟一起居住于水上。

          关于洪承畴母亲大义凛然故事,实际上极大可能是后人伪托,不过这种故事的出现也足够说明洪承畴不受欢迎的程度有多厉害了。

          可能最令洪承畴本人无奈的就是,连他忠心效忠的清廷最后也抛弃了他。

        洪承畴

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          以在世的境况看,洪承畴混得应该说相当风生水起,而他最终也以73岁高龄平安谢世。但在洪承畴去世百多年后,清廷对其评价却发生了重大变化。

          乾隆四十一年,皇帝下令国史馆编纂《明季贰臣传》,洪承畴和其他降清的叛臣一样都因为“开创大一统之规模,自不得不加之录用,以靖人心而明顺逆。今事后平情而论,若而人者,皆以胜国臣僚,乃遭际时艰,不能为其主临危授命,辄复畏死刑生,腼颜降附,岂得复谓之万人”入列。

          清廷对于洪承畴评价的转换并不奇怪。乾隆四十一年,清朝得国已经超过一个世纪,在中国的根基已经稳固,达成了所谓夷狄之君入为中国之主。这样的条件下,自然是希望臣子越忠心耿耿越好。像洪承畴这样大节有亏、背叛旧主的贰臣,也就沦为清廷新历史观的消费品了。


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