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        贞观之治竟然是假的?让唐太宗情何以堪

          唐太宗继承唐高祖李渊制定的尊祖崇道国策,并进一步将其发扬光大,运用道家思想治国平天下。唐太宗任人廉能,知人善用。采取了以农为本,厉行节约,休养生息,文教复兴,完善科举制度等政策,使得社会出现了安定的局面。因其时年号为“贞观”(627年—649年) ,故史称“贞观之治”。  

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          图片来源于网络

          《新唐书·食货志》这么描述贞观之治的成就:“至四年(即贞观四年),米斗四五钱,外户不闭者数月,马牛被野,人行数千里不赍粮。”就是说,贞观四年时社会生产力已得到最根本的恢复,社会治安已有最根本的改观,商业状况也得到最根本的扭转。

          其实,用“米斗四五钱”来强调政绩显然缺乏说服力。《汉书·食货志上》就说:“籴甚贵,伤民;甚贱,伤农。民伤则离散,农伤则国贫。”意思是粮价过低就会损害农民的利益,粮价过高又会危及国家的经济命脉,所以说粮价过低不但不能算是治道上的成功,反倒可能酿成普遍性的社会危机。

          再说,唐代京畿地区根本不可能会有“米斗四五钱”的咄咄怪事。同样是《新唐书·食货志三》,开篇就说唐都长安所处的关中地区,虽称沃野,然幅员有限,所出并不足供京师消耗,所以常要靠东南漕米的接济。而漕米须经水、陆转运,水路自江淮至东都洛阳“率一斛得八斗”,也就是说漕米自出产地至东都洛阳,运价便要占去货物本身价值的二成。 

          再以车或驮转运至陕,仅三百里地,“率两斛计佣钱千”,算下来每斗又需费去运价五十钱。如此一路折腾,纵是那些米都是天下掉下来的,不要一文钱,“米斗四五钱”,也仅及洛阳至长安那段旱路运费的十分之一呢!  

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          图片来源于网络

          长安米贵,本是不争的事实。大诗人白居易当年游学公卿,便有当路权臣以“长安米贵,居大不易”嘲讽他。贞元年间,关中和三辅地区的米价更有“斗千钱”的高纪录,而当时的国家储备粮库——太仓的储米,也仅能维持“天子六宫之膳不及十日”。所以,单高宗一朝,政府班子就曾有数次就食东都洛阳的经历。

          贞元初年,当时的关中地区,还真有过一次谷贱的特例,宰相陆贽便建议政府趁机以平价向民间购买,计在途所费,到太仓后每斗谷子也得费“钱四十有余”,每斗米则要费“钱七十”。元和十五年(820年),李翱在《疏改税法》一文中介绍说,建中元年(780年),“米一斗为钱二百”,经过政府的平抑,到元和十五年,“米一斗为钱五十”。(事见《李文公集》卷九。)

          贞观时的米价,仅为谷贱时米斗“钱七十”的十四分之一,是经过政府平抑之后“米一斗为钱五十”的十分之一,这可信吗?这样的数字只能是史官的伪饰。

          那么出现在初唐那一幕天下大同的治世,就很值得怀疑了。

          一个国家的国力如何,还要看局外人的评价,当时的国际友人、高昌国的国王麴文泰,便一直认为初唐时的国力,根本比不上前朝,他曾对自己的国民公开说过这样的话:“往吾入朝,见秦、陇之北,城邑萧条,非复有隋之比也。”(语见《资治通鉴》第一百九十五卷。)麴文泰在贞观四年(630年)十二月入朝,这正是史臣最为称赞的一年,麴文泰沿路所见,却是“城邑萧条”,完全不同于《新唐书·食货志》的说法。 

          其实,终李世民一生,大唐帝国不仅在经济上无法与前朝比匹,在人口上也不及前朝甚远。李世民故去三年之后,有一次,他儿子高宗皇帝李治问户部尚书高履行道:“去年户口增加了多少?”高履行答道:“去年共增加十五万户。”李治顺便又问起隋代及现在的人户情况,高履行答道:“隋代开皇年间全国有八百七十万户,现在全国有三百八十万户。”(事见《资治通鉴》卷第一百九十九。)说明经过唐代立国之后近四十年间的休养生息,其人口仍不足隋代全盛时的一半。  

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          图片来源于网络

          从两代经济与人口情况的对比,贞观时的国力可见一斑。

          《新唐书·食货志》所谓“人行数千里不赍粮”,也就是说行旅于途有得到食物补给的足够保障,无需自备干粮,这仅能说明商业的初步恢复。至于所谓的“外户不闭者数月”,只要参照麴文泰的“非复有隋之比也”的感慨,便不难明白。

          其实,贞观之治的由来,是有其现成的摹本的,也就是说,“盛世”造假,早有人为之。所谓的贞观之治,不过是一帮御用史家依样画的葫芦罢了。晋人干宝在《晋纪总论》中提到太康时的社会现状时,就有这样的溢美之词:“牛马被野,余粮栖亩,行旅草舍,外闾不闭,民相遇者如亲,其匮乏者取资于道路。”其口吻与贞观之治的描述何相似耳。如此的太平盛世,却是不三代而亡,这牛皮未免吹大了,难怪后来房玄龄在主修《晋书》时,要弃干宝的《晋纪》如敝屣了。

          历史总是在真真假假中变得过于神化。就如我们现在所用的修辞手法一样,古人也许也会对某一现象掺杂自己的思想感情。唐朝贞观之治无疑是成功的,但是论其影响力,也许并没有历史记载的那样传奇。


        《路边历史编辑》

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